About 85% of the copper ores known today are sulfide and 15% are oxide minerals. It is known that around 200 minerals contain copper, of which 30-40 are more common in nature. The most important and common copper minerals can be briefly listed as follows;
Chalcopyrite: CuFeS2 (34.6% Cu)
Chalcosine: Cu2S (79.9% Cu)
Covellin : CuS (66.5% Cu)
Bornite     : Cu5FeS4  (approximately 63% Cu, varies)
Tetraedrite :     3 (Cu2, Ag2, Fe, Zn)S.Sb2S3
Enargite : 3 Cu2S. As2S5
Burnonite :       3  (Cu2, Pb) S. Sb2S3
Cuprite  :  Cu2O  ( 88.8% Cu)
Teneurite :  CuO  ( 79.9% Cu)
Malachite  :  CuCO3 .Cu(OH)2        (57.5% Cu)
Azurite : 2 CuCO3. Cu(OH)2 (55.3 Cu)

If the ore deposit in sulfide copper ores is suitable for open pit mining and contains additional valuable minerals such as gold and molybdenum, even 0.3% Cu may be economical in large-scale enterprises. (Daily ore extraction is 100,000 t and above!)

Grade values ​​that can be accepted as the general economic grade limit –CUT OFF GRADE- in practice:
Open Mine (aboveground):  min. 0.5% Cu
Underground Operation : min. 1.0% Cu.

Ayyıldız Madencilik,  Images of our work in our Copper Fields.

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